Column flange stiffeners are steel plates used to prevent the column flanges from out-of-plane deformations. The plates are welded at the web and at each flange.

The lateral resistance system determines how a structure resists lateral load. Braced bays, moment frames, and core walls, are three examples.

Lateral torsional buckling is an ultimate limit state. The beam reaches a critical bending load where it will deflect laterally and twist.

Main structural members are load-bearing beams and columns.

Ultimate limit states are the factored loads used for strength checks.

Uniformly distributed load is constant pressure load applied across a surface.

Prying amplifies the tension force in a bolt. This occurs when the bolts connect elements with different stiffnesses.

Open-web steel joists are lightweight steel trusses. The chord members of the truss are angle, hat, or tube shaped. The web members of the truss are arranged in a triangular pattern, and fitted or welded to the chords.

Secondary framing are girts, hangers, and support members around openings.

Section class relates the width-to-thickness ratios for a beam’s flange and web with the yield strength of the beam.

Section modulus is a shape factor determined by the yield stress distribution at failure.

Section class determines the section modulus used in strength calculations.

Serviceability limit states are the service loads used for deflection checks.

A tie joist is a rod or bar extension from the joist bottom chord to the bottom flange of the beam. This extension provides lateral restraint to the bottom flange of the beam.

Unbraced length is the distance between braced points on the compression flange.

Yield line analysis is an analysis method that uses work and rotation formulas to determine the failure method.

Pass through force is additional axial force transferred to the member connection from adjacent members.